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Ezekiel Watson
Ezekiel Watson


GitHub Actions are designed to help you build robust and dynamic automations. This guide will show you how to craft GitHub Actions workflows that include environment variables, customized scripts, and more.


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GitHub Actions allow you to customize your workflows to meet the unique needs of your application and team. In this guide, we'll discuss some of the essential customization techniques such as using variables, running scripts, and sharing data and artifacts between jobs.

GitHub Actions include default environment variables for each workflow run. If you need to use custom environment variables, you can set these in your YAML workflow file. This example demonstrates how to create custom variables named POSTGRES_HOST and POSTGRES_PORT. These variables are then available to the node client.js script.

You can use actions to run scripts and shell commands, which are then executed on the assigned runner. This example demonstrates how an action can use the run keyword to execute npm install -g bats on the runner.

This article uses an example workflow to demonstrate some of the main CI features of GitHub Actions. When this workflow is triggered, it automatically runs a script that checks whether the GitHub Docs site has any broken links.

When creating workflows, custom actions, and composite actions actions, you should always consider whether your code might execute untrusted input from attackers. This can occur when an attacker adds malicious commands and scripts to a context. When your workflow runs, those strings might be interpreted as code which is then executed on the runner.

A script injection attack can occur directly within a workflow's inline script. In the following example, an action uses an expression to test the validity of a pull request title, but also adds the risk of script injection:

This example is vulnerable to script injection because the run command executes within a temporary shell script on the runner. Before the shell script is run, the expressions inside $ are evaluated and then substituted with the resulting values, which can make it vulnerable to shell command injection.

The recommended approach is to create an action that processes the context value as an argument. This approach is not vulnerable to the injection attack, as the context value is not used to generate a shell script, but is instead passed to the action as an argument:

With this approach, the value of the $ github.event.issue.title expression is stored in memory and used as a variable, and doesn't interact with the script generation process. In addition, consider using double quote shell variables to avoid word splitting, but this is one of many general recommendations for writing shell scripts, and is not specific to GitHub Actions.

Scorecards is an automated security tool that flags risky supply chain practices. You can use the Scorecards action and starter workflow to follow best security practices. Once configured, the Scorecards action runs automatically on repository changes, and alerts developers about risky supply chain practices using the built-in code scanning experience. The Scorecards project runs a number of checks, including script injection attacks, token permissions, and pinned actions.

CVE-2023-23397.ps1 is a script that checks Exchange messaging items (mail, calendar and tasks) to see whether a property is populated with a non empty string value. It is up to the admin to determine if the value is malicious or not. If required, admins can use this script to clean up the property for items that are malicious or even delete the items permanently. Please see CVE-2023-23397 for more information.

For organizations with large number of mailboxes:It is recommended to break up the mailbox list into multiple files, so the script can be run against mailboxes in batches. Here is an example of how to break up the mailboxes into batches of 1000:

To run this script in an on-premises Exchange Server environment, you need to use an account with the ApplicationImpersonation management role. You can create a new role group with the required permissions by running the following PowerShell command in an elevated Exchange Management Shell (EMS):

New-RoleGroup -Name "CVE-2023-23397-Script" -Roles "ApplicationImpersonation" -Description "Permission to run the CVE-2023-23397 script"Add-RoleGroupMember -Identity "CVE-2023-23397-Script" -Member ""The script uses Exchange Web Services (EWS) to fetch items from user mailboxes. So, the machine on which the script is run should be able to make EWS calls to your Exchange server.

To run this script in an Exchange Online environment, you need to be a Global Administrator or an Application Administrator. The script will create an application with full access permission on all the mailboxes.

NOTE: The script uses Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.dll to make EWS calls. The script will try to download the DLL and use it. However, if it is unable to, you will need to download the DLL and specify the path.

Execute the script in audit mode as an admin with the ApplicationImpersonation management role. For scanning on-premises mailboxes, the Environment value should be "Onprem" and you should provide the EWS URL of your Exchange server in EWSServerURL property. The script will ask for a login prompt, and the username must be provided.

The script provides a list of all the messages containing the problematic property in the mailboxes of users specified in an AuditResult_timestamp.CSV file. Admins should analyze this file and mark (with a "Y") messages for which either the property is to be cleaned or the message must be removed.

While scanning Exchange Online mailboxes, the script needs an Azure AD app that has delegate permissions for all Exchange Online mailboxes. You can create the application using the script. And once the application is no longer required, you can delete the application using the script as well.

While running the script in Exchange Online, you might see the above error intermittently. Re-running the script should resolve the issue. If it occurs frequently, then remove the Azure application you have created using -DeleteAzureApplication parameter and then recreate it using -CreateAzureApplication parameter.

You are getting a 401 unauthorized when trying to provide the -EWSServerURL parameter to the script. The possible causes can be due to bad credentials provided or the URL endpoint is not working correctly. Try to provide the credentials again to start off with. If that doesn't work, does the URL work when using a browser? You should get a result like this:

For example, script/bootstrap is only responsible for dependency management. script/setup initially calls script/bootstrap and then has its own code that will set a project to an initial state. script/test can be called on its own in a development environment to run tests, but is also called by script/cibuild by our CI server. script/console will load a development console on its own, but if appended with an environment name, will load the console for that environment.

Another advantage of consistent script names is language agnosticism. This means the scripts themselves can be written in whichever language is appropriate for the maintainers or the project. It also means the conventions can work for projects of varying languages and frameworks. This ensures an individual contributor can do things like bootstrap or run tests without knowing how to do them for a wide range of project types.

Normalizing on script names not only minimizes duplicated effort, it means contributors can do the things they need to do without having an extensive fundamental knowledge of how the project works. Lowering friction like this is key to faster and happier contributions.

Like many other Version Control Systems, Git has a way to fire off custom scripts when certain important actions occur.There are two groups of these hooks: client-side and server-side.Client-side hooks are triggered by operations such as committing and merging, while server-side hooks run on network operations such as receiving pushed commits.You can use these hooks for all sorts of reasons.

The first hook that is run is applypatch-msg.It takes a single argument: the name of the temporary file that contains the proposed commit message.Git aborts the patch if this script exits non-zero.You can use this to make sure a commit message is properly formatted, or to normalize the message by having the script edit it in place.

The res parameter is an instance of Response (historically, this parameter was msg and you may see other scripts use it this way). With it, you can send a message back to the room the res came from, emote a message to a room (If the given adapter supports it), or reply to the person that sent the message. For example:

So far, our scripts have had static responses, which while amusing, are boring functionality-wise. res.match has the result of matching the incoming message against the regular expression. This is just a JavaScript thing, which ends up being an array with index 0 being the full text matching the expression. If you include capture groups, those will be populated res.match. For example, if we update a script like:

If you are using scripts from hubot-scripts, take note of the Dependencies documentation in the script to add. They are listed in a format that can be copy & pasted into package.json, just make sure to add commas as necessary to make it valid JSON.

One use case for this would be to have one script for handling interactions with a service, and then emitting events as they come up. For example, we could have a script that receives data from a GitHub post-commit hook, make that emit commits as they come in, and then have another script act on those commits.

No code is perfect, and errors and exceptions are to be expected. Previously, an uncaught exceptions would crash your hubot instance. Hubot now includes an uncaughtException handler, which provides hooks for scripts to do something about exceptions. 041b061a72


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